Pediatric Neurology and Treatment Areas
Pediatric Neurology is a multi-disciplinary division, which aims to diagnose and treat nervous system diseases in children aged 0 to 18 years in a timely manner and to provide the children with a life at better conditions in the general population.
Growth and development continues in childhood, while the nervous system is the last one to complete development. Neurologic diseases not only affect children, but also their families and close social circle due to long-lasting treatment and rehabilitation process.
Which Conditions are assessed in a Pediatric Neurologic Examination?
Major Diseases of Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
A very wide range of disease begin in central and peripheral nervous systems and the major ones are delayed walking, floppy baby syndrome (hypotonia) (SMA), delayed speech, behavioral disorders and autism, attention deficit and seizures (epilepsy) as well as febrile convulsions.
Patients are brought to pediatric neurology due to brain damage (cerebral palsy, spasticity, diparesis, tetraparesis), damage to nerves of arm at birth (brachial plexus damage), and small (microcephaly) or large head circumference.
Patients are followed up and treated with multidisciplinary approach in cooperation with neurosurgery department when presented with intracranial lesions (fluid accumulation in brain (hydrocephalus), brain cysts, infarction, tumor, hemorrhage and aneurysm).
Headache in Children
Headache is the most common reason of admission to pediatric neurology, seen in 40% of children aged 7 and 75% of children aged 15. Among headaches, prevalence of migraine is 3 to 10%. Severe headaches that are associated with vomiting may develop due to other causes (hormonal, blood pressure, tumor, bleeding) and therefore, they should be urgently examined and tested.
Other Neurologic Groups
Other group of pediatric neurology patients consists of musculoskeletal diseases associated with progressive muscle weakness and deformities, gait disorder and poor exercise capacity. The most common ones are SMA (hypotonia in babies) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
What are Potential Genetic and Metabolic Disorders in Children?
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT MEANS
Diseases of Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Other Neurologic Groups
Genetic and Metabolic Diseases
GUIDE FOR PARENTS (Ages 0 to 6)
0 to 3 Months of Age
4 to 6 Months of Age
7 to 12 Months of Age
1 TO 3 YEARS OF AGE (TODDLER STAGE)
4 to 6 YEARS OF AGE (PRE-SCHOOL PERIOD)
Sleep EEG in Children: What is it? What are indications?
EEG is a test performed to assess electrical waves in the brain. Data is recorded from various points of head using cables (called electrodes, similar to ones used for cardiac electrogram). However, signals are recorded at a significantly lower voltage in EEG that requires higher technical diligence and takes a longer time. The test should be performed by an EEG technician, who has experience in working with children, under supervision of a pediatric neurologist.
EEG is used for;
How is Pediatric EEG Different than Normal EEG?
Pediatric EEG is recorded in two stages, requiring a more diligent and detailed work. The test may be difficult to perform, since children do not cooperate well. It is important to recognize signs of development and artefacts in childhood when the test data is assessed.
What Should Be Taken Into Consideration Before the Test?
The child is expected to present for the test after sleep deprivation. This will not only facilitate the test, but it will also reveal out the findings more clearly.
The child’s hair should be clean. Elements such as hair gels and dirt will affect the test’s quality. It is better to perform the test with a full stomach.
Electrodes are placed according to internationally acknowledged 10-20 EEG system. Centers have to use this system when a pediatric EEG is tested. The patient should be in a calm state during recording, while sleep and wake periods should be observed depending on the patient’s condition. A regular sleep-awake EEG takes approximately 1 to 2 hours, including preparation and recording time. The procedure is absolutely pain-free; however, children may cry due to being restless. Children may face problem falling asleep if not sufficiently deprived of sleep. Technician may administer certain medication in such cases, such that EEG results are not affected.
Our Hospital admits patients at 0 to 19 years of age for wake + night-sleep EEG.